In terms of reading and writing skills, by the end of first grade, children are expected to be able to distinguish between long and short vowel sounds, learn the common vowel digraphs for long vowel sounds (e.g. ie, ai, ay), and understand silent e. They should recognize that sentences always begin with a capital letter and end with punctuation (a period for a statement and a question mark for a question). They should further understand basic syllabication rules. In terms of Language Arts skills, by the end of first grade, students should be able to print all upper- and lowercase letters, use common, proper, and possessive nouns, use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences, use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns, use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future, use frequently occurring adjectives, use frequently occurring conjunctions, use determiners (e.g., articles, demonstratives), and use frequently occurring prepositions. In terms of math, by the end of first grade, students are expected to be able to count to 120, add and subtract easily up to 20 (including word problems), understand ones and 10s and being able to mentally add or subtract 10 from a given number, divide circles and rectangles into two and four equal parts and describe the parts as halves, fourths, and quarters, order three objects by length, and tell time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. edHelper's first grade Morning Work Skills Books expose students to these skills in an entertaining and gentle way that works well for both teacher and student.